The park was established in 1966 and is considered one of the most important protected areas for the maintenance of mountainous biodiversity and ecosystem integrity at the national level. Forests of European black pine (Pinus nigra) and common beech (Fagus sylvatica) cover the park’s lower and middle altitudes 1,000 to 1,600 m (3,300 to 5,200 ft), with several of these trees being more than 700 years old. At higher altitudes 1,600 to 1,900 m (5,200 to 6,200 ft), Bosnian pine (Pinus heldreichii) woodland is dominant, while at the greatest heights 1,900 to 2,177 m (6,200 to 7,142 ft), only certain types of bushes are found in the treeless alpine meadows. Additionally, the dry places and the lower parts of the valley are characterized by the domination of Buxus sempervirens, while some individuals of Abies borisii-regis are scattered among the Pinus nigra and Fagus sylvatica forests.
In total, 415 types of plants and 86 species of mushroom are recorded in the area. A number of local flower types are considered endemic to the Balkans, such as Dianthus deltoides and Allium breviradum. On the other hand, many endemic plants of central and northern Greece grow also in the park, like the Centaurea vlachorum. Moreover, rare species of the forests of Pindus mountains, typical of the lower geological layers, are Minuartia baldaci, Bornmuellera tymphaea, Campanula hawkinsiana, Viola dukadjinica and Silene pindicola. The most important places for the gathering of rare plants are the northern slopes of the peaks of Aftia, Flegga and Kapetan Kleidi. All the above places are very steep and difficult for grazing animals and therefore natural regeneration of the forest in this area is progressing normally and many rare plants are conserved. The serpentine soil, which is dominant in the area of the Pindus National Park also favors the growing of rare endemic plant species.